Friday, December 28, 2007


Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. usually known as Philips, is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. In 2004, its sales were € 30.3 billion and it employed 159,709 people in more than 60 countries. Philips is organized in a number of divisions: Philips Consumer Electronics, Philips Semiconductors, Philips Lighting, Philips Medical Systems and Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care.
As a chip maker, Philips Semiconductors is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders.
The company was founded in 1891 by Gerard Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Its first products were light bulbs 'and other electro technical equipment'. Its first factory remains as a museum. In the 1920s, the company started to manufacture other products, and in 1939 its first electric razor, the Philishave, was introduced. Philips markets its shavers in the USA using the Norelco name. Philips introduced the compact audio cassette tape, which was wildly successful, though its attempt to set a standard for video cassette recorders, the V2000, was unsuccessful in the face of competition from the Betamax and especially VHS standards.

Monday, December 17, 2007

Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange (currency or forex or FX) market exists wherever one currency is traded used for another. It is by far the major financial market in the world, and includes trading between large banks, central banks, currency speculators, multinational corporations, governments, and other financial markets and institutions. The average daily trade in the global forex and linked markets currently is over US$ 3 trillion. Retail traders (individuals) are a small fraction of this market and may only contribute indirectly through brokers or banks, and are subject to forex scams.

Sunday, December 02, 2007

A Brave New Audience

Over time, technology has become extremely developed. This is unpleasant for mankind because the more superior, the more serious television gets, the not as good as it is for its viewers. It always feeds people in sequence with which they take in without even important its perils. What they think is an admirable source of information, is actually a dangerous medium through which millions of Americans decrease their intelligence.

According to Neil Postman, it is basically just a damage of content because it focuses more on descriptions, rather than content. In Postman's essay, The Huxleyan Warning, he exhorts readers that Huxley's prophecy is launch to be realized. He claims that society will enslave themselves through their love for their own oppression; the technologies that disable their ability to think. This technology comes during the shape of a television screen. These prophecies, which were first introduce to us by Aldous Huxley, are observable in the movie The Truman Show. Truman is a normal human being, inadvertently being watched by billions of viewers ever since his birth. Viewers are caught to their television sets watching his every move.

Tuesday, November 13, 2007

A Team Player

The superiority of being a team player is one that everyone should enjoy. A team player is someone with good qualities who makes contributions and has the force to motivate each one around him or her. This individuality can be used in many areas such as games, family life, and in the company. You are more expected to be hired in the production if you have and demonstrate the qualities of a team player. As the business climate gets tougher before it gets improved, it is time to hike the talk if you want to develop.

Managers will require all the cooperation they can get. To land a high paying job with a major business you need to be a team player. Having good qualities is one of the most significant characters you can have. Being a team performer thinks of the team as a whole and is not selfish in their views and decisions.

Monday, November 05, 2007


The standard definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn personal passenger vehicle with leaf springs or leather robust for postponement, whether light, smart and fast or large and relaxed. Compare the public conveyance stagecoach, charabanc, and omnibus.
A medium that is not sprung is a wagon. An American buckboard or Conestoga wagon or "prairie schooner" was never taken for a carriage, but a waggonette was an enjoyment vehicle, with lengthways seats.The word car meaning "wheeled vehicle", came from Norman French at the start of the 14th century; it was absolute to cover automobile in 1896.

In the British Isles and many Commonwealth countries, a railway carriage (also called a coach) is a railroad car planned and prepared for transporting passengers.In the United States, a baby carriage is a wheeled transportation for recline infants (in English outside North America: perambulator or pram), often with a hood that can be adjusted to protect the baby from the sun.

Monday, October 29, 2007

water taxi

A water taxi or river taxi or aquatically disposed taxi is a boat used for public transportation in cities with plentiful water channels. Many cities, including New York City, Boston, Baltimore, Fort Lauderdale, Winnipeg, Vancouver, London, and Tokyo have planned water taxis that operate in a similar manner to ferries or buses. Others, like Venice, have for-hire boats like to traditional taxis. Venice also has a vaporetto or waterbus system that operates in the same way to American "water taxis".
Water taxis also activate in cottage areas where some cottages are available only by water. Visitors can drive to a local marina and take a water taxi to the final purpose.
On March 6, 2004, a "Seaport Taxi," a water taxi service operated by the Living Classrooms Foundation, capsized through a storm near Baltimore's Inner Harbor; 5 passengers died in the accident.

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

A Lifelong Battle

There have been many obstacles that have come my way, some of which I can have avoided and chosen not to tackle. Others were to be anticipated. Being an asthmatic has been a difficult journey that has slowed me down in many ways. At the age of five, the innovation of my respiratory disease was first announced.
I trapped a virus and finished up in the sanatorium. The doctors told my family that I had serious asthma and they were vague if I was going to make it. Gladly enough I improved from the virus, but I was faraway from recovering from my overall condition. One of my preferred activities as a child was playing sports. Softball as well as basketball was my favorites. My asthma unnatural my strength greatly, but I tried not to let it dispirit me.

Monday, October 15, 2007

A book report

The paranormal was a preferred theme of Boobie Ann Mason. Regrettably, In Country is completely obviously brainless in terms of Mason's common reactionary government. Below, I will show that Mason's expert writing is representative of the strong Romantic principles of the author's time. Support for this argues is present in the following: (a) Mason's reknown incorporation of symbol in the work, (b) the enormous use of coming of age in Country, and (c) Romantic overtones in the work's opening monologue.

How can I put this, these themes are most apparent in first half of the Country, for that is when Mason's often insane prose shine most brightly. To indicate that Colonel Maxwell is the work's villain, the author makes his conversation pandering. Captain Adams's famously not consideration out attitude throughout the book is often cited.

Sunday, October 07, 2007

A Brief History of the Internet

By default, any ultimate history of the Internet must be short, since the Internet in one form or another has only been in reality for less than 30 years. The first iteration of the Internet was launched in 1971 with a community showing in early on 1972. This new network, recognized as ARPANET. It means Advanced Research Projects Agency Network was very ancient by today's standards, but an objective in computer interactions.
ARPANET was based upon the design concepts of Larry Roberts (MIT) and was fleshed out at the first ACM colloquium, held in Gaithersburg, TN in 1966, although RFPs weren't sent out until mid 1968.
The responsibility of security in 1969 commissioned ARPANET, and the first node was created at the University of California in Los Angeles, administration on a Honeywell DDP-516 mini-computer. The second node was recognized at Standford University and launched on October first of the same year. The third node was situated at the University of California, Santa Barbara November 1, 1969 and the fourth was opened at the University of Utah in December.

Thursday, September 27, 2007

Ancient Japan

The Kamakura period (1186 - 1333) is herald by the location of political power in Kamakura, located about 28 miles southwest of Tokyo. The Imperial court gave gratitude to the de factor rule of Minamoto Yoritomo by confer on him the title shogun after he defeated the Taira family in 1185 positively in the battle of Dan no Ura. Yoritomo recognized his base in Kamakura. The Kamakura bakufu tent administration was Japan's foremost military or warrior government. The bakufu prohibited the country through a system of appointed governors and state wards. The bakufu's major area of control was in the eastern zone far from Kyoto, where the ruler still lived. Warrior bands which had previously been under the rule of Kyoto gave their commitment to the Minamoto and the system of bakufu rule.

This shift in political authority marks the beginning of the medieval period in Japan, and period that lasted roughly until the commencement of the 17th century. This political change had long-term effects; although various clans held power through the ages, the shogunate form of government lasted awaiting the 19th century give way of the Tokugawa in 1868.

Monday, September 10, 2007

A cold winter morning

I am lying on a white, sandy beach with the glowing sun beating down directly on my tanned summer body. I notice the beautiful, Puerto Rican Cabana boy heading over to replenish my newly empty Margarita glass. I look around my private beach and at the crystal clear, sparkling ocean water tempting me warmly in to its open arms. I get up from my bed on the sand, walking gradually to the water. The sand is flaming my bare feet with such passion that I speed my walk up almost into a jog. As I reach the waterfront I stop, as a falling wave is heading toward my glazing body; I step closer to be in its direct path. I move smoothly in with such grace; I prepare myself for the cool, refreshing bath. I hear an alarm bell screaming, I look around in a panic as it is hurting my ears and giving me a powerful headache. My beach is wandering away, and then it is gone. The ‘warmness my body feels is gone.

I open my eyes; I am gloomy, lifeless room. My alarm clock is going off and the sound can only be compared with exhausted your fingernails across a chalkboard.

Monday, September 03, 2007

Flak jacket

A flak jacket or flak vest is a type of caring clothing. Today it frequently refers to bulletproof vests, particularly Type III and on top of which have added steel, titanium, ceramic or polyethylene saucers which can resist high-powered rounds such as from rifles.

Monday, August 27, 2007

Internet marketing

Internet marketing is the use of the Internet to advertise and sell goods and services. Internet Marketing includes pay per click advertising, banner ads, e-mail marketing, affiliate marketing, blog marketing, article marketing, etc. Some of the benefits associated with Internet marketing include the availability of information. Consumers can log onto the Internet and learn about products, as well as purchase them, at any hour.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Water clocks

Water clocks, all along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments, with the only exceptions being the cognomen and day-counting tally stick. Given their great antique, where and when they first existed is not known and perhaps unknowable. The simplest forms of water clocks, the bowl-shaped outflow type, are known to have existed in Babylon and in Egypt around the 16th century B.C. Other regions of the world, including India and China, also have early proof of water clocks but the earliest dates are less certain. Some authors, however, write about water clocks appearing as early as 4000 BC.

Monday, August 13, 2007


A blazer or boating jacket is a kind of jacket, generally double-breasted even though single-breasted blazers have become more general in recent times. A blazer looks like a suit jacket except for that it generally has patch pockets with no flaps, and metal shank buttons. A blazer's cloth is usually of a resilient nature as it is used in schools and was used for sport. They frequently form part of the uniform dress of bodies, such as airlines, schools, yacht or rowing clubs, and private security organizations. As sporting dress has become more modified to the activity, the blazer has become limited to clubs' social meetings. Generally, blazers are navy blue, but nearly every colour and mixture of colours has been used, particularly by schools and sporting organizations.

Tuesday, August 07, 2007


The toothbrush is a device used to clean teeth, consisting of a tiny brush on a handle. Toothpaste, often containing fluoride, is commonly added to a toothbrush to assist in cleaning. Toothbrushes are offered with changeable textures of bristles, and come in many different sizes and forms. Most dentists recommend using a toothbrush labeled "Soft", since firmer bristled toothbrushes can harm tooth enamel and irritate gums as indicated by the American Dental Association. Toothbrushes are often ready from synthetic fibers, although natural toothbrushes are also known in many parts of the world.

Tuesday, July 31, 2007


Headphones are a pair of small loudspeakers, or less commonly a single speaker, with a way of holding them close to a user's ears and a means of linking them to a stereophonic or monophonic audio-frequency signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio, etc. In the context of telecommunication, the term headset is used to describe a combination of
Headphone and microphone used for two-way communication, for example with a telephone.

Sunday, July 22, 2007


In chemistry, a metal is a ingredient that readily loses electrons to form positive ions and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. Metals form ionic bonds with non-metals. They are sometimes described as a web of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of delocalized electrons. The metals are one of the three groups of elements as eminent by their ionization and bonding properties, along with the metalloids and nonmetals. On the periodic table, a diagonal line drawn from boron separates the metals from the nonmetals. Most elements on this line are metalloids, sometimes called semi-metals; elements to the lower left are metals; elements to the upper right are nonmetals.

Friday, July 13, 2007


Vegetable is a culinary term which usually refers to an edible part of a plant. The definition is traditional rather than scientific and is somewhat capricious and subjective. All parts of herbaceous plants eaten as food by humans, entire or in part, are normally considered vegetables. Mushrooms, though belonging to the biological realm fungi, are also commonly considered vegetables. In general, vegetables are thought of as being savory, and not sweet, even though there are many exceptions. Nuts, grains, herbs, spices and culinary fruits (see below) are usually not considered vegetables.

Sunday, July 08, 2007


An extranet is a personal network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organization's information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's Intranet that is extended to users outside the company. It has also been described as a "state of mind" in which the Internet is professed as a way to do business with other companies as well as to sell products to customers.

Sunday, July 01, 2007


Lopping, also known as tree lopping and topping, is the practice of cutting trunks and branches of a tree in an effort to contain the tree's size or shape. Lopping is differentiated from other styles of pruning by where the cuts are made. When a tree is lopped, the cuts are made internodally, or not at branch unions and collars at the correct angles, leaving a piece of protruding timber that is called a stub.
Lopping in many cases is careful an inappropriate pruning method for amenity trees. The lopped stubs may regrow adventitious epicormic shoots which are bonded only to the bark. These epicormic shoots can grow dynamically and, unless regularly pruned off, may outgrow the original height and spread of the tree. Further, the ends of the lopped stubs are exposed to pathogens which may enter and infect the tree.
In orchards, fruit trees are often lopped to encourage regrowth and to keep a smaller tree for ease of picking fruit. The pruning regime in orchards is more intended and the productivity of each tree is an important factor. In an orchard, though, the natural longevity of a tree is often compromised in favor of its output in fruiting. Orchard trees are also carefully monitored and treated with fungicides and insecticides to minimise losses.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007


A superscalar CPU architecture implements a form of parallelism called Instruction-level parallelism within a solitary processor. It thereby allows faster CPU throughput than would otherwise be possible at the same clock rate. A superscalar architecture executes more than one instruction during a single pipeline stage by pre-fetching several instructions and at the same time dispatching them to redundant functional units on the processor.


Seymour Cray's CDC 6600 from 1965 is often mentioned as the first superscalar plan. The Intel i960CA and the AMD 29000-series 29050 microprocessors were the first commercial single-chip superscalar microprocessors. RISC CPUs like these brought the superscalar idea to micro computers because the RISC design results in a simple core, allowing straightforward instruction send off and the inclusion of multiple functional units on a single CPU in the inhibited design rules of the time. This was the reason that RISC designs were faster than CISC designs through the 1980s and into the 1990s.

Saturday, June 23, 2007


Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of Earth's ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams, making prediction of tides important for coastal navigation. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide, the intertidal zone, is an important ecological product of ocean tides
The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry.Sea level measured by coastal tide gauges may also be strongly affected by wind. More generally, tidal phenomena can occur in other systems besides the ocean, whenever a gravitational field that varies in time and space is present

Sunday, June 17, 2007

Industrial metal

Industrial metal is a musical genre which draws elements from industrial music and heavy metal music. Industrial metal music is typically centered around metal guitar riffs and industrial synthesizer/sequencer lines, heavily distorted, very low pitched guitars, as well as harsh vocals, but in some instances can have clean vocals. This term is used quite loosely, telling everything from industrial bands sampling metal riffs to heavy metal groups augmented with sequencers. Industrial metal encompasses industrial subgenres such as aggro-industrial and coldwave and often overlaps some elements of nu-metal and post-punk.
It is difficult to distinguish many industrial metal artists and industrial rock because both genres leave much room for ingenuity and creativity. By convention, all industrial metal artists may be more vaguely described as industrial rock as well, but not all industrial rock artists are properly described as industrial metal. The general rule of thumb is the speed and "crunchiness" of the guitars. If the guitars are fast and heavily distorted, it is likely industrial metal.

Monday, June 11, 2007

USB Drives

USB drives mean Universal Serial Bus. USB flash drives also known as USB drives, key drives, pen drives or thumb drives. USB drives are NAND-type flash memory data storage devices incorporated with a USB interface. They are typically small, lightweight, detachable and rewritable. As of April 2007, memory capacities for USB Flash Drives currently are sold from 32 megabytes up to 64 gigabytes .Capacity is limited only by current flash memory densities, although cost per megabyte may increase quickly at higher capacities due to the expensive components.

USB flash drives offer possible advantages over other portable storage devices, particularly the floppy disk. They are more compact, generally faster, hold more data, and are more consistent than floppy disks. These types of drives use the USB mass storage standard, supported natively by recent operating systems such as Linux, Mac OS X, UNIX, and Windows.

Wednesday, June 06, 2007


Prawns are shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata .Prawns are illustrious from the superficially similar shrimp by the gill structure which is branching in prawns, but is lamellar in shrimp. The sister taxon to Dendrobranchiata is Pleocyemata, which contains all the true shrimp, crabs, lobsters, etc.
In various forms of English, the name "prawn" is often applied to shrimp as well, generally the larger species, such as Leander serratus. In the United States, according to the 1911 Encyclopedia, the word "prawn" usually indicates a freshwater shrimp or prawn. In Middle English, the word "prawn" is recorded as prayne or prane; no cognate form can be found in any other language. It has often been connected to the Latin perna, a ham-shaped shellfish, but this is due to an old scholarly error that linked perna and parnocchie with prawne-fishes or shrimps. In fact, the Old Italian perna and pernocchia meant a shellfish that yielded nacre, or mother-of-pearl.

Sunday, May 27, 2007

Uses for chain

Exact uses for chain include: Bicycle chain, chain that transfers power from the wheel to the
drive-wheel of a bicycle thus propelling it Chain drive, the main feature which differentiated the safety bicycle Chain gun, type of machine gun that utilizes a chain, driven by an external power source, to actuate the mechanism rather than using recoil Chain pumps, type of water pump where an endless chain has positioned on it circular discs Chain-linked Lewis, lifting device made from two curved steel legs Chainsaw, portable mechanical, motorized saw Curb chain, used on curb bits when riding a horse Keychain, a small chain that connects a small item to a key ring Lead shank, used on difficult horses that are misbehaving O-ring chain,

a specialized type of roller chain Roller chain, the type of chain most commonly used for transmission of mechanical power on bicycles, motorcycles, and in industrial and agricultural .machinery Snow chains, used to improve traction in snow Timing chain, used to regulate the valve and ignition timing on an internal combustion engine Ball and chain, phrase that can refer to either the actual restraint device that was used to slow down prisoners, or a derogatory description of a person's significant other Bicycle lock, lockable chain.

Saturday, May 19, 2007

Content Management System

A Content Management System is a software system intended for content management. This includes computer files, image media, audio files, electronic documents and web content. The idea behind a Content Management System is to make these files available inter-office, as well as over the web. A Content Management System would most often be used as archival as well. Many companies use a Content Management System to store files in a non-proprietary form. Companies using a Content Management System file share with ease, as most systems use server based software, even further broadening file availability. As shown below, many Content Management Systems include a feature for Web Content, and some have a feature for a "workflow process."

"Workflow" is the idea of moving an electronic document along for either approval, or for adding content. Some Content Management Systems will simply facilitate this process with email notification, and automated routing. This is ideally a mutual creation of documents. A Content Management System facilitates the organization, control, and publication of a large body of documents and other content, such as images and multimedia resources.

Monday, May 14, 2007


Biography is a type of literature and further forms of media such as film, based on the written accounts of individual lives. While a biography may focus on a subject of fiction or non-fiction, the term is frequently in reference to non-fiction. Pat Shipman however, says "I think a good biographer has to write fiction some of the time to make apparent a significant event in someone's life." This is sometimes debated. As opposed to a profile or curriculum vitae, a biography develops a complex analysis of personality, highlighting different aspects of it and including intimate details of experiences. A biography is more than a list of distant facts like birth, education, work, relationships and death. It also delves into the emotions of experiencing such events.

Ancient Greeks developed the biographical tradition which we have inherited, although until the 5th century AD, when the word 'biographia' first appears, in Damascus' Life of Isodorus, biographical pieces were called simply "lives" . It is quite likely that the Greeks were drawing on a pre-existing eastern tradition; certainly Herodotus' Histories contains more exhaustive biographical information on Persian kings and subjects than on anyone else, implying he had a Persian source for it.

Wednesday, May 09, 2007

History of bridges

The initial bridges were spans made of made of wood logs or planks and eventually stones, using a easy support and crossbeam arrangement. Most of these early bridges were very poorly built and could not often support heavy weights. It was this insufficiency which led to the development of better bridges. The arch was first used by the Roman Empire for bridges and aqueducts, some of which still situate today. These arch based bridges could stand in circumstances that would previously have swept any bridge away. An example is the Alcantara Bridge, built over the river Tagus.
Earlier bridges would have been swept away by the strong current. The Romans also used cement, which reduced the difference of strength found in natural stone. One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, lime, sand, and volcanic rock. Brick and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era, as the skill for cement was lost then later rediscovered. Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes Mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 1500s.During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich, Johannes Grubenmann, and others. The first engineering book on building bridges was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716.

With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of shaped iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron did not have the tensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel.

Friday, April 27, 2007


Biography (from the Greek words bios meaning "life", and graph in meaning "write") is a type of literature and further forms of media such as film, based on the written accounts of individual lives. While a biography may focus on a subject of fiction or non-fiction, the term is frequently in reference to non-fiction. Pat Shipman however, says "I think a good biographer has to write fiction some of the time to make apparent a significant event in someone's life." This is sometimes debated. As opposed to a profile or curriculum vitae, a biography develops a complex analysis of personality, highlighting different aspects of it and including intimate details of experiences. A biography is more than a list of distant facts like birth, education, work, relationships and death. It also delves into the emotions of experiencing such events.

Ancient Greeks developed the biographical tradition which we have inherited, although until the 5th century AD, when the word 'biographic' first appears, in Damascus' Life of Isodorus, biographical pieces were called simply "lives" ("bioi"). It is quite likely that the Greeks were drawing on a pre-existing eastern tradition; certainly Herodotus' Histories contains more exhaustive biographical information on Persian kings and subjects than on anyone else, implying he had a Persian source for it.

Tuesday, April 24, 2007


100 Groundwater is water flowing within aquifers below the water table. Within aquifers, the water flows through the pore spaces in unconsolidated sediments and the fractures of rocks. Groundwater is recharged from, and ultimately flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps and can form oases or swamps. Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal and industrial use through man-made wells. The study of the giving out and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology.

Relative groundwater travel times, click to view full size Groundwater can be a long-term 'reservoir' of the natural water cycle, as opposed to short-term water reservoirs like the atmosphere and fresh surface water. The figure shows how deep groundwater can take a very long time to complete its natural cycle. Groundwater is naturally replenished by surface water from precipitation, streams, and rivers when this recharge reaches the water table. It is estimated that the volume of groundwater is fifty times that of surface freshwater; the icecaps and glaciers are the only larger reservoir of fresh water on earth.

Usable groundwater is contained in aquifers, which are subterranean areas of permeable material that channel the groundwater's flow. Aquifers can be confined or unconfined. If a confined aquifer follows a downward grade from a recharge zone, groundwater can become pressurized as it flows. This can create artesian wells that flow freely without the need of a pump. The top of the upper unconfined aquifer is called the water table or paretic surface, where water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure.

Wednesday, April 18, 2007

Mobile phone

A mobile phone or cell phone is an electronic telecommunications device. Most current mobile phones connect in its place to the network using a wireless radio wave transmission technology. These mobile phones communicate via a cellular network of base stations, which is in turn connected to the conventional telephone network. In the late 1970s and early 1980s the car phone was the only mobile phone available.In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, a mobile phone can support many additional services such as SMS for text messaging, packet switching for access to the Internet, and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video.Some of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers include Alcatel, Audiovox, Fujitsu, Kyocera, LG, Motorola, NEC, Nokia, Panasonic, Philips, Sagem, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, SK Teletech, Sony Ericsson, and Toshiba.There are also specialist communication systems linked to, but distinct from mobile phones, such as satellite phones and Professional Mobile Radio. Mobile phones are also separate from cordless telephones, which generally operate only within a limited range of a specific base station.

Monday, April 09, 2007

Bonneville Dam

100 Bonneville Lock and Dam consists of a number of dam structures that together whole a span of the Columbia River between the US states of Oregon and Washington at River Mile 146.1. The dam is situated 40 miles east of Portland, Oregon, in what is now the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The main functions of Bonneville Lock and Dam are those of electrical power generation and river navigation. The dam was built and is managed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Electrical power generated at Bonneville is spread by the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Lock and Dam are named for Army Capt. Benjamin Bonneville, an early explorer endorsed with charting much of the Oregon Trail. The name is marked BAH-nee-vill.
The unusual structures: a lock and powerhouse constructed on the south side of Bradford Island and a spillway on the north side were built by the Army Corps of Engineers during the New Deal—started in 1933 and finished in 1937. Prior to this damming of the river, a set of locks that were opened in 1896 moved ships around Cascades Rapids, situated several miles upstream of Bonneville. Both the cascades and the old lock structure were submerged by Lake Bonneville, the tank that formed behind the dam. The original navigation lock at Bonneville was opened in 1938 and was, at that time, the biggest single-lift lock in the world.
Dimensions and statistics
Aerial view of spillway flanked by powerhouses, Bonneville Lock and Lake Bonneville beyond First Powerhouse – Constructed in 1933-37; 313 m long; 10 generators with an output capacity of 526,700 kW.
Spillway – Constructed 1933-37; 18 gates over a length of 442 m; maintains the reservoir usually 18 m above the river on the downstream side;
Second Powerhouse – Constructed 1974-81; 300.5 m long; 8 generators with a total generating capacity of 558,200 kW.
Bonneville Lock – Constructed in 1993 at a cost of $341 million; 26 m wide, 206 m long; transit time is approx. 30 minutes.
Lake Bonneville – 77 km long reservoir on the Columbia River created by Bonneville Dam; part of the Columbia-Snake Inland Waterway.

Monday, April 02, 2007


The Goshawk is a average large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards and harriers.

It is a extensive species throughout the moderate parts of the northern hemisphere. In North America it is named as the Northern Goshawk. It is mostly resident, but birds from colder regions of north Asia and Canada wander south for the winter.

Goshawk in flight this kind nests in trees, building a new nest each year. It hunts birds and mammals in woodland, relying on surprise as it flies from a perch or hedge-hops to cruel circle its prey unaware. Animals as large as hares and Pheasant are taken. Its call is a ferocious shriek. Many older goshawks refuse to attack hares, if it was previously acutely kicked by a hare which it tried to catch.

In Eurasia, the male is confusable with a female Sparrow hawk, but is larger, much bulkier and has comparatively longer wings. In spring, he has a stunning roller-coaster display, and this is the best time to see this enigmatic forest bird.

Thursday, March 29, 2007

Unmanned space missions

100 Unmanned space missions are those using remote-controlled spaceship. The first such assignment was the Sputnik I assignment, launched October 4, 1957. Some missions are more appropriate for unmanned missions rather than manned space missions, due to minor cost and lower risk factors. Since the early 1970s, most unmanned space missions have been based on space probe with built-in assignment computers, and as such may be classified as entrenched systems.

Most American unmanned missions have been synchronized by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and European missions by the European Space Operations Centre, part of ESA. ESA has conducted comparatively few space examination missions. ESA has, however, launched a variety of spacecraft to carry out astronomy, and is a coworker with NASA on the Hubble Space Telescope. There have been a great number of very winning Russian space missions. There were also a small number of Japanese and Chinese missions.

Sunday, March 25, 2007


A microphone, sometimes called a mic (pronounced "mike"), is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, hearing aids, motion picture production and in radio and television broadcasting.
The invention of a practical microphone was crucial to the early development of the telephone system. Emile Berliner made-up the first microphone on March 4, 1877, but the first helpful microphone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. Many early developments in microphone design took place in Bell Laboratories.
In all microphones, sound waves (sound pressure) are translated into mechanical vibrations in a thin, flexible diaphragm. These sound vibrations are then converted by various methods into an electrical signal which varies in voltage amplitude and frequency in an analog of the original sound. For this reason, a microphone is an acoustic wave to voltage modulation transducer.

Tuesday, March 20, 2007

Flower anatomy

Flowering plants are heterosporangiate (producing two types of reproductive spores) and the pollen (male spores) and ovules (female spores) are created in different organs, but these are jointly in a bisporangiate strobilus that is the typical flower.
A flower is regarded as a customized stem with shortened internodes and bearing, at its nodes, structures that may be very modified leaves. In essence, a flower structure forms on a modified shoot or axis with an apical meristem that does not grow continuously (growth is determinate). The stem is called a pedicel, the end of which is the torus or receptacle. The parts of a flower are set in whorls on the torus. The four main parts or whorls (starting from the base of the flower or lowest node and working upwards) are as follows:
Poppycalyx – the outer whorl of sepals; typically these are green, but are petal-like in some species.
corolla – the whorl of petals, which are usually thin, soft and colored to attract insects that help the process of pollination.
androecium– one or two whorls of stamens, each a filament topped by an anther where pollen is produced. Pollen contains the male gametes.
gynoecium– one or more pistils. The female reproductive organ is the carpel: this contains an ovary with ovules (female gametes). A pistil may consist of a number of carpels merged together, in which case there is only one pistil to each flower, or of a single individual carpel (the flower is then called apocarpous). The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen. The supportive stalk, the style becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma, to the ovules, carrying the reproductive material.

Wednesday, March 14, 2007

Black gold

Black gold is a type of gold used in jewelry. It is created by various methods, such as electrodeposition using black rhodium or ruthenium; plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition process concerning amorphous carbon; and controlled oxidation of carat gold containing chromium or cobalt. Electroplating solutions that have ruthenium give a slightly harder black coating than those that contain rhodium.

Unfortunately, black gold is very hard and making jewellery out if it regularly necessitates using previously-made melting forms. Varying the size, adding stones or other customizations are often too hard for the common goldsmith.

Black gold

Black gold is a type of gold used in jewelry. It is created by various methods, such as electrodeposition using black rhodium or ruthenium; plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition process concerning amorphous carbon; and controlled oxidation of carat gold containing chromium or cobalt. Electroplating solutions that have ruthenium give a slightly harder black coating than those that contain rhodium.

Unfortunately, black gold is very hard and making jewellery out if it regularly necessitates using previously-made melting forms. Varying the size, adding stones or other customizations are often too hard for the common goldsmith.

Friday, March 09, 2007


Silk, known as pattu, has a long history in India and is generally produced today. Historically silk was used by the upper classes, while cotton was used by the poorer classes. Today silk is mostly produced in Kanchipuram, Dharmavaram, Mysore, etc. in South India and Banaras in the North. "Murshidabad silk", well-known from historical times, is mostly produced in Malda and Murshidabad district of West Bengal and woven with hand looms in Birbhum and Murshidabad district. The silk from Kanchi is mainly well-known for its classic designs and enduring quality. The silk is traditionally hand-woven and hand-dyed and regularly also has silver threads woven into the cloth. Most of this silk is used to make saris. The saris usually are very expensive and vibrant in color. Garments made from silk form an integral part of Indian weddings and other celebrations. In the northeastern state of Assam, three different types of silk are produced, together called Assam silk: Muga, Eri and Pat silk. Muga, the golden silk, and Eri are produced by silkworms that are native only to Assam. The heritage of silk rearing and weaving is very old and continues today particularly with the production of Muga and Pat riha and mekhela sador, the three-piece silk saris woven with traditional motifs.

Monday, March 05, 2007


Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and is known as the Red Planet due to its reddish look as seen from Earth. The planet is named after Mars, the Roman god of war. A terrestrial planet, Mars has a thin atmosphere and surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts and polar ice caps of Earth. It has the peak mountain in the solar system, Olympus Mons and the largest canyon, Valles Marineris. Mars' turning period and seasonal cycles are also related to those of the Earth.
Mars has two tiny natural moons, Phobos and Deimos, which orbit very close to the planet and are attention to be captured asteroids.
Both satellites were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall, and are named after the characters Phobos (panic/fear) and Deimos (terror/dread) who, in Greek mythology, accompanied their father Ares, god of war, into battle. Ares was known as Mars to the Romans.
From the surface of Mars, the motions of Phobos and Deimos appear very different from that of our own moon. Phobos rises in the west, sets in the east, and rises another time in just 11 hours. Deimos, being only just outside synchronous orbit—where the orbital period would match the planet's period of rotation—rises as expected in the east but very slowly. Despite the 30 hour orbit of Deimos, it takes 2.7 days to set in the west as it slowly falls behind the rotation of Mars, then just as long once more to rise.
Because Phobos' orbit is under synchronous altitude, the tidal forces from the planet Mars are slowly lowering its orbit. In about 50 million years it will either crash into Mars' surface or break up into a ring structure around Mars.

Thursday, March 01, 2007

Chili fruit

The fruit is eaten cooked or raw for its fiery hot flavour which is concerted along the top of the pod. The stem end of the pod has glands which create the capsaicin, which then flows down through the pod. The white pith, that surrounds the seeds, contains the highest concentrations of capsaicin. Removing the seeds and inner membranes is thus effectual at reducing the heat of a pod.
Chile powder is a spice made of the dried ground chilies, generally of the Mexican chile ancho variety, but with small amounts of cayenne added for heat, while chili powder is composed of dried ground chili peppers, cumin, garlic and oregano. The bottled hot sauce Tabasco sauce is made from Tabasco chilies, similar to cayenne, which may also be fermented. Chipotles are dry, smoked red (ripe) jalapeños.
Indian cooking has multiple uses for chilies, from snacks like bajji where the chilies are dipped in batter and fried to the infamously hot vindaloo. Chilies are also dried and roasted and salted for later use as a side dish for rice varieties like vadam (a kind of pappad). In Turkish or Ottoman cuisine, chilies are commonly used where it is known as Kırmızı Biber (Red Pepper) or Acı Biber (Hot Pepper). Sambal is dropping sauce made from chili peppers with many other ingredients such as garlic, onion, shallots, salt, vinegar and sugar, which is very popular in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

Friday, February 23, 2007


Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery and ductile component of the poor metal group of chemical elements. In the periodic table it has the symbol Al with atomic number 13.
Aluminium is found mostly in the bauxite ore and is remarkable for its resistance to corrosion and its light weight. Aluminium is used in several industries to manufacture a large variety of products and is very significant to the world economy. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building.

Monday, February 19, 2007

Indian culture

Indian culture can be classified into many different form which are existent in their totality throughout the territory of India. The culture of India has been influenced by different religions and customs of the world, which resulted in the mingling of religious values, folk idioms and art forms. While the religious influence is relatively evident in the "classical" Indian culture mostly found in smaller towns and villages, the urban India is now widely influenced globalization.
The cultural policy of the Government of India has three most important objectives. One of them is to preserve the cultural heritage of India; to repeat Indian art consciousness amongst countrymen and to promote high standards in innovative and performing arts fields

Wednesday, February 14, 2007

Red rain in Kerala

The coloured rain of Kerala first fell on 25 July 2001, in the districts of Kottayam and Idukki in the southern part of the state. Some reports recommended that other colours of rain were also seen.Many more occurrences of the red rain were reported over the following 10 days, and then with thinning frequency until late September.According to locals, the first coloured rain was preceded by a loud thunderclap and flash of light, and followed by groves of trees shedding shriveled grey "burnt" leaves. Shriveled leaves and the disappearance and sudden formation of wells were also reported around the same time in the area.The colouration of the rain was due to red particles in suspension in the rain water, and when it fell, the red rain was at times as strongly coloured as blood. It typically fell over small areas, no more than a few square kilometres in size, and was sometimes so generalized that normal rain could be falling just a few metres away from red rain. Red rainfalls typically lasted less than 20 minutes.

Friday, February 09, 2007

The computer

A computer is a machine for manipulate data according to a list of commands known as a program. Computers are tremendously adaptable. In fact, they are universal information-processing machines. According to the Church–Turing theory, a computer with a positive minimum entrance capability is in principle capable of performing the responsibilities of any other computer. Therefore, computers with capability ranging from those of a personal digital supporter to a supercomputer may all achieve the same tasks, as long as time and memory capacity are not consideration. Therefore, the same computer design may be modified for tasks ranging from doling out company payrolls to controlling unmanned spaceflights. Due to technical progression, modern electronic computers are exponentially more capable than those of preceding generations. Computers take plentiful physical forms. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, while whole modern embedded computers may be lesser than a deck of playing cards. Even today, huge computing conveniences still exist for focused scientific computation and for the transaction processing necessities of large organizations. Smaller computers designed for personage use are called personal computers. Along with its convenient equivalent, the laptop computer, the personal computer is the ubiquitous in order processing and communication tool, and is typically what is meant by "a computer". However, the most general form of computer in use today is the embedded computer. Embedded computers are usually comparatively simple and physically small computers used to control one more device. They may control equipment from fighter aircraft to industrial robots to digital cameras. in the beginning, the term "computer" referred to a person who performed numerical calculations, frequently with the aid of a mechanical calculating device or analog computer. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the presented loom designs that used a series of punched paper cards as a program to weave involved patterns. The resulting Jacquard loom is not considered a true computer but it was an essential step in the growth of modern digital computers.
Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a completely programmable computer as early as 1820, In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the presented loom designs that used a series of punched paper cards as a program to weave involved patterns. The resulting Jacquard loom is not considered a true computer but it was an essential step in the growth of modern digital computers.
but due to a combination of the restrictions of the technology of the time, limited finance, and an incapability to resist tinkering with his design, the device was never really constructed in his lifetime. By the end of the 19th century a number of technologies that would later prove helpful in computing had appeared, out such as the punch card and the vacuum tube, and large-scale automated data giving using punch cards was performed by tabulating equipment designed by Hermann Hollerith.During the first half of the 20th century, many technical computing wants were met by increasingly difficult special-purpose analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a base for subtraction (they became ever more rare after the development of the programmable digital computer). Sequence of gradually more powerful and stretchy computing devices were construct in the 1930s and 1940s.

Saturday, January 13, 2007

Estate law

Estates may also be held jointly as joint tenants with rights of survivorship or as tenants in common. The difference in these two types of joint ownership of an estate in land is basically the inheritability of the estate. In joint tenancy (or in marriage this is sometimes called tenancy of the entirety) the surviving tenant (or tenants) become the sole owner (or owners) of the estate. Nothing passes to the heirs of the deceased tenant. In some jurisdictions the magic words "with right of survivorship" must be used or the tenancy will assumed to be tenants in common. Tenants in common will have a heritable portion of the estate in proportion to their ownership interest which is presumed to be equal amongst tenants unless otherwise stated in the transfer deed. There are other types of estates in land that are used to prevent the alienation of land (also used in the law of trusts). Generally these are called future interests, an example being the rule against perpetuities. See also the Rule in Shelley's Case.
Real property may not only be owned it may be leased in which the possession of the property is given to the tenant for a limited period of time. Such leases are also called estates such as an estate for years, a periodic tenancy or an estate at will.
Real property may also be owned jointly through the device of the condominium or cooperative.